Cesare Beccaria in 1764 wrote a treatise On Crime & Punishment. In it he gave suggestions on crime prevention which he suggested is the art of leading people to the least possible unhappiness.
The chimera men of power should follow is seeing to it that the laws favor not so much a certain class of men but themselves included.
What is fatal for crimes is one man’s fear of another. Enslaved (outcasts) seek distraction from emptiness of condition in which they find themselves. See to it that enlightenment accomplishes liberty:
Reward virtue’s easy way of feeling because demands only offer momentary obedience.
The death penalty has never made men better, Beccaria argues. And what manner of right can man attribute to himself for legally slaughtering his fellow being? For punishment to be just only gradations of intensity to deter are required. A life sentence is more justly drawn out over a lifetime than death in a moment. Homicide is not deterred by an ordered public murder. “This is surely a reason for enlightened citizens to desire, with greater ardor, the continual increase of their authority.”